The essay parts are one of the most important characteristics in this type of writing. While there is some freedom in the essay format, a tripartite structure is usually used. That is, the text is divided into three parts or segments.
These sections are: introduction, development and conclusion. To complement the work, the sources consulted are added, especially in academic essays. The set of all the parts is called superstructure or formal arrangement. It should be noted that there is also a smaller structure that is related to the paragraphs. However, only the formal provision will be studied as it sheds more light on the subject.
The introduction is the first of the parts of the essay that must be known, since in the introduction the idea on which the whole text will be discussed is presented. In rhetoric this section is called an exordium and its function is to announce the thesis. In other words, the author assumes his position before a topic. For example, it may be against or in favor of an issue.
Broadly speaking, this section describes the panorama of the discussion and then enunciates a position. It is necessary to clarify that in the academic essays the introduction depends on the type of composition chosen. We quote a case immediately. When starting from the general to the particular, the thesis (position) is inserted at the end of the introduction. This varies in each case and is typical of work with academic rigor.
It is usually considered that development is the most important of the parts of the trial because in the development all the arguments are presented to sustain the chosen position. Also known as body or simply argumentation is the second section of the essay. It is closely linked to the introduction as it is a consequence of this. This is because the chosen position must now be supported by solid and coherent arguments.
Due to the nature of the trial, the largest percentage of the work goes to this section. Likewise, in the development it is possible to quote or return to authors who have already reflected on the matter. The objective is to present the most convincing arguments.
Similar to the relationship between the parts of the essay, the parts of the development must have a link. This aspect is defined as a microstructure and consists of generating logical links between each paragraph. As a work presents this level of cohesion, the final effect of the text will be more forceful. To illustrate it better we can consider that the text is woven prayer by prayer, until we get a resistant fabric. Not in vain the development of an essay is a task that implies a high degree of reflection.
The conclusion or epilogue is usually considered to be the last of the parts of the essay, since in the conclusion the initial post-argumentation position is recovered. To make it more illustrative, we will say that the conclusion is the result of the work of the arguments.
In this regard, confusion must be avoided and the arbitrary initial position can be retaken. On the contrary, if our arguments were correctly developed, the synthesis of these will give as a product the initial idea. Finally, we note that the conclusion closes a circular work, because we return to the starting point.
Other parts of the essay: citations and bibliography
Although we can end the essay text after the conclusion, there are other parts of the essay that work as annexes or complementary information. The first of these parts is the one that corresponds to the quotes.
This is one of the points that causes more doubts among those who write their first essay. For this reason, it is worth clarifying that an essay is not a formal investigation. So it is not necessary to insert citations with a specific format throughout the text.
In effect, the most used resource is the critical apparatus or footnotes. So when it is pertinent to make an appointment it is placed below the text. For the rest, it will suffice to mention in the development the name of the author from whom we rescued an idea.
In addition to the citations, another part of the essay to be highlighted is the bibliography or list of references, since showing the consulted sources endows the essay with credibility and prestige.
By convention, the bibliography is attached to the end of the work. This should contain all the data of the books, journals and material consulted during the research stage. Finally, we clarify that there is no official format to present the sources, being popular to use the APA style.
After reviewing the parts of the essay we summarize that these are: introduction, development, conclusion and references. In the first one, the position on the subject is stated. For its part, in the development takes place the demonstration of the chosen position through the use of arguments. Third, the conclusion reaffirms the initial idea after it has been demonstrated. Then, in the bibliography, all the sources consulted are appended to an ordered list. Finally, it is worth remembering that the essay is more flexible with citations provided that it indicates who an idea belongs to.
2 Types of assay
The different types of test respond to several classification criteria, either depending on the approach or its structure or composition. The first case proposes that the essays can be argumentative, expository or analytical. These are the writings most used in the different school levels and are relatively easy to master.
The second case suggests that the trials are classified according to the structure they use. That is to say, an essay can be of deductive, inductive, by definition, of comparison, cause and effect, etc. Such categories are common in the academic essays required at universities. Therefore its use is related to advanced knowledge in writing and logic.
In summary, the essays can be grouped into classes depending on their approach or composition structure.
Among the most common types of essays, the argumentative type occupies a leading role because it is the most used and allows to defend a position. Most of the essays that have reached the rank of classics in the literature belong to this category. They are considered excellent vehicles for issuing a formal opinion, as the structure is consistent and the use of constant arguments.
In general terms, the argumentative essay aims to persuade readers about some issue. At school level, they are complicated writings since they require mastery of the subject. Without this requirement it is impossible to take a position and defend it. In short, we will say that it is the kind of essay par excellence whose basis is argumentation.
Within the types of essays, the expositions are those that describe, classify, order and expose a certain topic. This category is less popular than the argumentative type. This is because the expository character is linked to the school rather than the creative one. However, as an academic tool they are excellent resources for demonstrating and evaluating knowledge.
In comparison with an argumentative text, it is sufficient to expose in an orderly manner all aspects of a topic. In addition, we must bear in mind that the exhibition essay will be able to define, explain and describe at the same time. Finally, the expository essay responds to a logical systematization of the points to be treated. It never lacks a process of planning and reflection.
An analytical essay is one in which a subject is broken down into all its parts, to examine its particularities and relationships with each other. This category occupies a special place among the test types due to its thoroughness. The work of analysis is typical of academics, therefore they will not be recommended in lower school grades. However, as a study tool they are valuable for understanding a topic.
Elaborating an analytical essay implies an arduous work of logical systematization. The writer must be able to fragment the subject in its minimum parts, evaluate them and re-integrate them. In short, this essay form is very specialized since it implies an exceptional handling of the subject in question.
Types of essays by their logical method
The different types of essays can be grouped according to the logical structure used, the most common being deduction and induction.
As for deductive type essays, the structure consists of presenting the thesis or position at the beginning. Then the demonstration of the particular aspects is given, as many as necessary. Finally, the initial thesis that has now been proven by the particularities is recovered.
In addition, this provision is the most common since its management is simple and allows a clear systematization. By way of synthesis, a deductive essay responds to the classical model of enunciation of the thesis and subsequent analysis of the particular.